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Differentiate between the communication

Q.7. Differentiate between the communication within the organisation and communication of the organisation with outer world. Discuss the different forms of these communications. (2009-10)

Ans. Communication within the Organisation: This type of communication carries innumerable kinds of messages which are difficult to be found out but are easy to transmit among the members. These regards to how to transmit, who communicates to whom or what kinds of relationships are developed within the organisation.

The well known forms of this type of communication are formal communication and informal communication. Formal communication is a communication through the chain of command. It is a means of communication that is normally controlled by managers or people occupying similar positions in an organisation and is associated with formal organisational structure. This network is prescribed and controlled by manager and supervisors in the organisation. It is a primary network of communication where messages of various types flow up and down in the hierarchy in the form of reports, suggestions, grievances; order, instructions, etc. It offers the following advantages

: 2. It covers all subsystems

1. It allows flow of information in an orderly and authentic manner as it takes place along the officially prescribed routes.

of an organisation.

3. There is a tendency of filtering information in formal channels of communication. 4. It satisfies the people occupying managerial positions and helps them in exercising control over subordinates.

Informal communication stretches throughout the organisation in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. Grapevine is an informal channel of business organisation. It represents the unofficial channels of communication which are created and controlled by people themselves rather than by the management.

This communication offers the following advantages: 1. It carries information rapidly.

2. The managers get to know the reactions of their subordinates on their policies. 3. It creates a sense of unity among the employees who share and discuss their views with each other.

4. It serves as an emotional supportive value.

5. It is a supplement in those cases where formal communication does not work. Communication of Organisation with Outer World: Communication is an on-going process. It does not take place only with people within the organisation but people outside the organisation as well. If a company has to survive in the competitive environment it has to adopt this form of communication. The image of the company is contingent upon the relationship that it maintains with people outside. This communication can take on a number of forms:

1. Advertising, 2. Media interaction, 3. Public relation,

Presentations, 5. Negotiation, 6. Mails, telegrams

and letters.

4. This communication can be oral or written. The first three forms of communication, advertising, media interaction and public relation falls mainly in the domain of corporate communication. Establishing good relations, negotiating or conducting a deal with interacting clients, issuing tenders soliciting proposals, sending letters are all parts of such type of communication. This is a different task as interaction takes place and varies between a host of people belonging to different disciplines, personalities and expectations.

While communicating at the internal level an individual can on a few occasion be slightly relaxed but the same would not hold true if he is communicating at the external level.



Chitra Question Bank for M.B.A. Q.8. Discuss in brief the meaning of vertical communication. Describe downward communication with its advantages and disadvantages. move both as

Ans. Meaning of Vertical Communication: Vertical communication may downward well as upward. So, on the basis of flow of information, the communication process may be classified as

1. Downward communication. 2. Upward communication. Managing director Downward communication Divisional managers Departmental heads Upward communication Middle level executives Lower level executives Operating employees


Fig. Vertical communication i.e. downward and upward.

1. Downward Communication: It represents the flow of information from the top level to the lower levels of the organisation. In below figure, communication from the managing director to the operating employees represents downward flow. The purpose of downward communication is to communicate policies, procedures, programmes and objectives and to issue orders and instructions to the subordinates.

Downward communication can take place through verbal or written orders and instructions, notices, circulars, letters, memos, posters, periodicals, publications, group meetings, etc. The basic objectives of downward communication are as under:

(a) To give instructions about what to do and how to do. (b) To explain organisational policies, programmes and procedures. (c) To know how effectively a person is performing his job. (d) To motivate employees to improve their performance.

(e) To train subordinates in performing the jobs. Advantages/Merits of Downward Communication

The advantages of downward communication are as follows: 1. Missions and Goals: It informs the employees about the organisation’s missions and goals, and how they should contribute their best to accomplish these goals. 2. Plans and Policies: It provides the information to the employees regarding organisational plans

and policies.

3. Duty and Authority: It facilitates the employees about knowing what is expected of them and the extent of their authority.

4. Job Satisfaction: It increases employees job satisfaction by communicating them about their better performance.


Business Communication


Disadvantages/Demerits of Downward Communication

Downward communication has the following disadvantages:

1. Distortion: In big-sized organisations, information flows through a number of layers. It is possible sometimes that the message is sent to the lowest level of organisational hierarchy. 2. Incomplete Information: Sometimes, managers withhold a part of information with them and transmit incomplete information so that subordinates continue to remain dependent upon them for requisite information. takes too long for

3. Time Consuming: As the organisational hierarchy has too many information to reach the person concerned. Sometimes, the information reaches after the desired action has already been taken. encoded

levels, it

4. Filteration of Information: Oral information often gets lost in and decoded according to people’s perception. Researches have shown that in some cases, information upto 80% gets lost on the way. , 08-09, 11-12)

transit. Messages are

Q.9. State barriers in communication.

(2007-08barriers to the smooth and free flow of communication. What do you

Or Bring out the important suggest to remove these barriers? (2006-07,12-13) ways and means to

Or Point out the various barriers to effective communication. Also suggest the ensure the free flow of communication from both the ways. (2013-14) . As a

Or With the help of suitable examples, explain what are various barriers to communication manager what measures you would use to overcome them? (2015-16

Ans. The term ‘Barrier’ means ‘Hurdle’ , ‘Hindrance’ or ‘Obstacle. Thus, barriers imply hurdles or obstacles on the way of transmission of message from the sender to the receiver. In practice, there exist several barriers in communication which render it ineffective. Types of Barriers: Various kinds of barriers to communication may be classified as under: 1. Physical and Mechanical Barriers: The physical and mechanical barriers may be caused by

noise, distance, time and information overload.

(a) Physical Barriers: Outdated machines and equipments may produce excessive noise leading to physical barriers in communication. Background noise, too cold or too hot or poor lighting included.

(b) Noise: Communication does not occur in totally noise-free environment. Noise, though varying degree, disturbs or interferes with communication. Due to higher level of noise in telephones sometime irrelevant information may be screened out and sometimes relevant information may be left out. Adverse weather conditions and faulty telecommunication most common barriers.

are also of

(C) Distance: Long distances between the senders and receivers can also obstruct effective communication. If sender and receiver are separated by geographical distances, telecommunication is most often resorted to disturbance in telephonic connection and can result -communication or incomplete communication.

systems are other

in mis (d) Time: Time refers to the reaching of the message. If an important message reaches late, it is sure to affect communication. For instance, factories have shift systems. Person working in different shifts fail to communicate due to time gap.

(e). Information Overload: It refers to excessive transmission of information. Much more information than what the receiver can process is transmitted to him. The receiver cannot understand,digest, analyse and act upon information overload that is beyond his mental capacity. 2. Language or Semantic Barriers: Language is a medium of carrying all information and ideas. People from different backgrounds speak different kinds of languages. A speech given in English may understood to others.

) to communication

not be

Chitra Question Bank for M.B.A.

The barriers are as follows: it badly

most common types of semantic (a) Unclear Message: Lack of clarity and precision in a message makes expressed, such various types of communications from superiors,

(b) Faulty Translation: Every manager receives peers and subordinates into language suitable to each. Hence, if the message is not translated lead to a problem. or special groups

properly, then (C) Specialist’s Language: It is often found that technical, personnel to develop a special and technical language of their own. This increases their isolation from a communication þarrier.

it may tend

and builds assumptions which

others (d) Unclarified Assumptions: There are certain uncommunicated underlie practically all messages. Though a message appears to be specific, its underlying assumptions to the receiver. as

may not be 3. Socio-psychological Barriers: The most common types of socio-psychological follows: between

clear barriers are

(a) Differences in Perception: Perceptual barriers may arise due to differences individuals in the way they perceive, organise and understand their environment. (b) Differences in Attitudes: People differ with regard to attitudes and opinions which often interfere with communication.

(C) Emotions: How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of information influences effectively how he interprets the information.

(d) Inattention: Ifpeople do not pay the required degree ofattention to listeningandunderstanding the messages they are supposed to receiver, communication will lose its purpose. (e) Cultural Differences: Cultural differences are faced when managers deal with people of different cultures. Culture refers to values, belief, norms, attitudes and perceptions of people. 4. Organisational Barriers: The most common types of organisational barriers are as follows:

(a) Status Relationship: Organisation structure creates a number of status levels among the members of organisations. There is a difference in the status level of the chief executive and director-production of a company. This difference becomes apparent when one communicates with another.

(b) One-way Flow: Effective communication is a two-way street, i.e. flow of feedback is very

necessary but if there is no feedback, it would be a barrier.

(c) Rules and Regulations: Organisational rules and regulations affect the flow of communication by prescribing the subject-matter to be communicated and also the channel through which these are to be communicated.

5. Personal Barriers: The most common types of personal barriers are as follows: (a) Attitude of Superiors: The attitudes of superiors towards communication in general or in any particular direction affect the flow of message in different directions. (b) Lack

of Confidence in Subordinates: Superiors generally perceive, correct or otherwise, show that their subordinates are less competent and capable, they are not able to advise superiors or they may not have some information coming downwards. (C) Lack

of Time: ‘No time’ , ‘Lack of time’ are the terms frequently used by the superiors. They do not share considerable time to talk to their subordinates. They feel, whether real or not, that they are overburdened with work.

Some measures to remove communication barriers as a manager are: 1. Orientation of Employees

: Many possible conflicts and misunderstanding can be avoided by providing the subordinates with information relating to company objectives, policies, procedures and authority relations. An employee who is familiar about company’s working environment is able to Detter appreciate problems of other people in the organisation.


Business Communication

Knowledge 2. Developing Proper Interpersonal Relation: Communication helps to develop proper relations between different people working in the organisation. The subordinates should be free and frank to transmit complete and correct information to the former. Superior must appreciate useful criticism and beneficial suggestions of the subordinates. Superior and subordinate must develop a mutual trust and

3. Protective Listening: Superior must develop the habit of patient listening, they should be quick to evaluate the information before understanding it. In protective listening, the listener tries to understand the view of communicator without prejudging, approving or disapproving what he says.

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